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Kamis, 18 Agustus 2011

History The Kingdom of Sriwijaya

In Sansekertasri language means "luminous" and the victory means "victory". Preliminary evidence regarding the existence of this kingdom from the 7th century; a Chinese priest I-Tsing writes That he visited Srivijaya in 671 and stayed for six months. The oldest inscriptions of Srivijaya also be in the 7th century inscription Kedukan the which hill in Palembang was the date 682.

Sriwijaya (Srivijaya) adl a powerful maritime kingdom on the island of Sumatra and influential in the archipelago's territory covers Cambodia Thailand Srivijaya Malay Peninsula Java, Kalimantan, Sumatra and Sulawesi.
The decline of Srivijaya influence on regional subordinates began to shrink because some of the attacks peperangandiantara Dharmawangsa king of Java Ditahun 990 and 1025 years of Coromandel Coladewa Rajendra attack next year under the control of the kingdom of Srivijaya 1183 Dharmasraya. And at the end of the submission under this kingdom of Majapahit kingdom.

Sumatran Srivijaya became a symbol of greatness and the beginning of the archipelago except the kingdom of Majapahit in East Java. In the 20th century both kingdoms became olehkaum nationalist references to show that Indonesia is a unitary state sebelelum Dutch colonialism.

Sriwijaya called with various names. The Chinese call Shih-li-fo-shih, or San-fo-Fo ts'i or San Qi. In Sanskrit and Pali Srivijaya kingdom called Yavadesh and Javadeh. The Arabs call Zabaj and Khmer call Malayu.Sementara of Ptolemy map is found a description of the island there are three who Sabadeibei associated with Sriwijaya.

Srivijaya's existence is known formally in 1918 by French Historian George Cœdès from the Ecole Française d'Extreme-Orient. Around 1992 to 1993 Pierre-Yves Manguin proved That the center of Srivijaya in the Musi River and the between Bukit Seguntang Sabokingking (located in South Sumatra province of Indonesia). That argues however Soekmono the center of Srivijaya is located in Jambi province in the region is now the Batang Hari sehiliran the between Muara Sabak to Tembesi.

Formation and Growth of Srivijaya royal

Sriwijaya kingdom as a trade center and a maritime nation. These countries did not extend beyond the power of the islands of Southeast Asia with the exception of contributing to the population of Madagascar in the west as far as 3300 miles. Around the year 500 the root of Sriwijaya began to flourish in the region around Palembang Sumatra. This kingdom consists of three main zones of the estuary area of the capital of Palembang who centered the Musi River valley who serves as regional supporters and rival estuarine areas who are able to be a rival power center. Musi river upstream region is rich in various precious commodity for traders who governed the capital city of China directly by the authority while still supporting the area was ruled by the local datu.

The expansion of this empire to Java and the Malay peninsula made the Srivijaya controlled two major trade center in Southeast Asia. Based on the observations are found ruins of temples in Thailand and Cambodia Srivijaya. In the 7th century Cham seaport in eastern Indochina started to divert a lot of traders from Sriwijaya. To prevent this the Maharaja Dharmasetu launched several attacks on the coastal cities in Indochina. Indrapura town on the banks of the Mekong river at the beginning of the 8th century under the control of Srivijaya. Srivijaya continued dominance over Cambodia until the Khmer king of Khmer empire founder Jayawarman II broke with the kingdom in the same century.

From the inscription Kedukan Hill in the year 682 under the leadership of the Kingdom Minanga Dapunta Hyang Jayanasa submission under the Srivijaya empire. Possession of the gold-rich Malays WHO have Increased the prestige of the kingdom.

Limestone City On the basis yg yg inscription dates to 682 and found on the island of Bangka At the end of the 7th century this empire Had taken control of the southern part of Sumatra island to Lampung Bangka and Belitung. This inscription also mentions That Jayanasa has launched a military expedition to Punish Bhumi Java Sriwijaya unrequited Devotion to this event along with Tarumanagara collapsed in West Java and holing (Kalinga) in Central Java, Who is most Likely due to attack Srivijaya. Srivijaya grew and managed to control the maritime trade routes in the Straits of Sunda Strait, the South China Sea Java Sea and the Strait of Karimata.

The 7th century Chinese records that there were two kingdoms on Sumatra and the Malay in Kedah and the three kingdoms of Java into the Srivijaya empire. At the end of the 8th century several kingdoms in Java, among others Tarumanegara and holing under the authority of Sriwijaya. According to the records of this period also Malay-Buddhist dynasty Sailendra migrated to Central Java and in power there. In this same century Langkasuka in the Malay peninsula became part of the kingdom. In the following Pan Pan and Trambralinga northward Langkasuka also under the influence of Srivijaya. In the 9th century Srivijaya empire covering the territory of Sri Lanka Malay Peninsula Sumatra West Java Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Maluku and the Philippines. With a mastery of the maritime kingdom of Srivijaya empire who became great until the 13th century.

After Dharmasetu Samaratungga a royal successor. He came to power in the period 792 to 835. Unlike Dharmasetu Samaratungga expansionist who did not perform military expansion but lbh chooses to reinforce the mastery of Srivijaya in Java. During his leadership he built the temple of Borobudur in Central Java, who finished in the year 825.

Vajrayana Buddhism in the Kingdom of Sriwijaya

As the central teaching of the Vajrayana Buddhist Srivijaya attracted pilgrims and scholars from countries in Asia. Among others, the pastor of the Chinese I-Tsing, WHO visited Sumatra in the course of study at Nalanda University of India in 671 and 695 as well as in the 11th century Buddhist scholar Atisha a Bengali origin WHO was instrumental in developing the Tibetan Vajrayana Buddhism. I-Tsing reported Srivijaya That Became Home to Thousands of Buddhist scholars to be the center of Buddhist learning. WHO Visitors come to the island states That gold coins have been used in the coastal empire. Buddhism Buddhism Hinayana and Mahayana Buddhism also developed in Sriwijaya.

Relations with the Kingdom of Sriwijaya Regional Strength

From the historical record archaeological danbukti stated that in the 9th century Srivijaya has done colonization in almost all the kingdoms of Southeast Asia including Sumatra, Java, Malay Peninsula Cambodia and South Vietnam. Dominance over the Straits of Malacca and Sunda Strait makes Srivijaya as controller of the spice trade routes and the local trade who charge for every ship passing. Sriwijaya accumulate wealth as a port and trading warehouses waiting China and India markets.

During the Khmer awalKerajaan also became the colony of Sriwijaya. Many historians claim that Chaiya in Surat Thani province of southern Thailand as the last royal capital of the Srivijaya influence apparent in buildings-style pagoda Borom That reply Sriwijaya. After the fall of Srivijaya Chaiya is divided into three cities namely (Mueang) Chaiya Thatong (Kanchanadit) and Khirirat Nikhom.

Srivijaya was also closely correlated with Pala kingdom in Bengal and an inscription dates to about 860 records that the king Balaputra a monastery dedicated to the University Nalada Pala. Relations with the Chola dynasty in southern India is quite good and then bad after Rajendra Coladewa throne and attacked in the 11th century.

Minanga is the first power of Srivijaya who were the competitors who finish can be conquered in the 7th century. Malay kingdom has gold mining as a source of economic and Swarnnadwipa said (the island of gold) may refer to this. And then Kedah is also subject and subordinate to the area.

Auspicious Period of Sriwijaya

In the first half of the 10th century between the fall of the Tang and Song dynasties rose with foreign trade is quite widespread, especially Fujian royal and the rich countries Guangdong Min Nan Han empire. Srivijaya undoubtedly benefited from this trade. In 903 Muslim writer Ibn Battuta was impressed with the prosperity of Srivijaya. Urban empire includes Palembang (specifically Mount Seguntang) Muara Jambi and Kedah. In the year 902 Srivijaya sent tribute to China. Two years later, the last king of the Tang Dynasty conferred the title of the messenger of Srivijaya. Of Chinese literature has the name of Arab envoys this provides information that in those days was associated with Srivijaya Arabian allow Sriwijaya has entered the influence of Islam in the kingdom.

The collapse of Sriwijaya

Coladewa Rajendra Chola king in the year 1025 from the Coromandel southern India conquered Kedah from Srivijaya and robbed. Then the kingdom of Chola pass attack and conquest of Srivijaya successfully for several decades following the whole empire of Srivijaya was under the influence Coladewa Rajendra. Nevertheless Rajendra Coladewa still provide opportunities to the kings who conquered to remain in power as long as remains subject to him. After the invasion was the end result in weakening the hegemony of Srivijaya and then some areas subordinate to form his own empire and later emerged as a new force Dharmasraya Empire and later annexed the region including the Malay Peninsula and the Sumatran Srivijaya itself.

San-fo-term TSI especially in the year 1225 no longer synonymous with Srivijaya, but has been synonymous with Dharmasraya where the administrative center of San-fo-TSI has been moving so from a list of 15 countries subordinate San-fo-TSI is a list of the royal colony Dharmasraya reply before is a subordinate area of Sriwijaya and turned control of Srivijaya and its other colonies.
Between the years 1079 - 1088 Chinese chronicles record still bahwaSan-fo-ts'i still sending envoys from Jambi and Palembang. In an article titled China's Sung Hui Yao stated that the kingdom of San-fo-TSI in 1082 sent a messenger which at that time China under the reign of Emperor Yuan Fong. The ambassador conveyed a letter from the king of Kien-pi subordinate San-fo-TSI who is a letter from the daughter of the king who entrusted the affairs of the state of San-fo-227 TSI and also submit tahil thatch jewelry and 13 pieces of clothing. And then proceed with the next messenger delivery in 1088.

Based on Chinese sources in the book Chu-fan-chi written reply in the year 1178 Chou-Ju-Kua describe that in the islands of Southeast Asia there are two kingdoms very strong and rich that San-fo-ts'i and Cho-po (Java). In Java, he found that people embraced Buddhism and Hinduism, while the people of San-fo-ts'i Buddhist and has 15 regional subordinates who include; Pong-fong (Pahang) Tong-ya-nong (Terengganu) Ling-ya-si- kia (Langkasuka) Kilantan (Kelantan) Fo-lo-an (estuaries Dungun Terengganu area now) Ji-lo-t'ing (Cherating east coast of Peninsular Malaysia) Ts'ien-mai (Semawe east coast of Peninsular Malaysia) Pa-t 'a (Paka River east coast of Peninsular Malaysia) Tan-ma-ling (Tambralingga Ligor southern Thailand), Kia-lo-hi (Grahi Chaiya is now southern Thailand), Pa-lin-fong (Palembang) Kien-pi (Jambi) Sin-t 'o (Sunda) Lan-wu-li (Lamuri in Aceh) and Si-lan (Cambodia).

In the Song of Pamacangah Babad Arya Tabanan and is also called 'Arya Damar' as a regent of Palembang deserving help Gajah Mada in conquered Bali in 1343 Prof. C.C. Berg considers synonymous with Adityawarman. And then in 1347 Adityawarman self-proclaimed king in accordance with the manuscript Malayapura Who Are on the back of the Arca Amoghapasa. Then from the Book of the Cape Land Law Probably the WHO was written before the year 1377 there are also words palimbang earth.

In the year 1275 Singhasari successor kingdom of Kediri in Java do an expedition in Pararaton called a kind of expansion and conquest of Grounds Malays who are known by name of Expedition Pamalayu Kertanagara king who then presented the statue Amoghapasa Singhasari to Srimat Tribhuwanaraja Mauli Warmadewa Dharmasraya as king Malays who are in Padang Inscription Roco. And next in 1293 appeared as a substitute Singhasari Majapahit and after the Queen ascended the throne Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi responsibilities to Adityawarman a Peranakan Malay and Javanese to conquer Swarnnabhumi back in 1339. And in those early Srivijaya's name was called again but nothing has replaced it with the name of Palembang in accordance with Nagarakretagama who describes the Majapahit empire.

Trade Kingdom of Sriwijaya

In trading Sriwijaya became the controlling trade routes between India and China that is with control over the straits of Malacca and Sunda straits. Arabs noted that the Sriwijaya has a variety of commodities such as camphor wood aloes cloves cardamom nutmeg ivory gold and tin enacting as rich as the king of Srivijaya kings in India. This abundance of wealth who have allowed Sriwijaya buy loyalty of vassal-vassal throughout Southeast Asia.

Influence of Islamic Culture and Religion

Sriwijaya kingdom's first Indian culture is much influenced by Hindu culture and then followed by Buddhism. Buddhism was introduced in Sriwijaya in the year 425 AD. Sriwijaya is the most important center of Mahayana Buddhism. Kings of Srivijaya controlled the archipelago through trade and conquest from the period of the 7th century until the 9th century. Thus directly contribute and develop the Malay language and culture in the Malay Archipelago.

It is possible that the Srivijaya who renowned as a port trading center in Southeast Asia as well as a center of Buddhist learning is also visited by migrants from the Middle East and began to be influenced by Muslim traders and scholars. So some royal who was originally a part of the Srivijaya and then grow into the forerunner of Islamic kingdoms in Sumatra, one day while weakening the influence of Srivijaya.

The influence of many Arab Muslims who visit the Srivijaya Srivijaya king named Sri Indrawarman who converted to Islam in 718. Thus it is very possible the social life of Srivijaya who adl social community within the community are Buddhists and Muslims alike. Srivijaya king was recorded several times corresponded to the Islamic caliphate in Syria. Even at one adl manuscript letter addressed to the caliph Umar ibn Abdul Aziz (717-720M) with a request that the caliph refused to send preachers to the palace of Sriwijaya.

Srivijaya Empire Heritage

Based on the founder of the Malay Sultanate of Malacca Tale claimed as a prince of Palembang Palembang noble family of the Srivijaya dynasty. This shows that in the 15th century grandeur and prestige prestige Srivijaya still respected and used as a source of political legitimacy for the rulers in the region.

Sriwijaya name has been used and perpetuated as the name of the street in various cities and this name has been attached with Sumatran city of Palembang and Sriwijaya Selatan.Universitas founded in 1960 in Kilkenny is named after the kedatuan Sriwijaya. Similarly pulaKodam Sriwijaya (military commando units) PT Sriwijaya Fertilizer (Fertilizer Company in South Sumatra) Sriwijaya Post (daily newspaper in Palembang) TV Sriwijaya Sriwijaya Air (airline) and Sriwijaya Sriwijaya Stadium Football Club (soccer club Palembang) all named Thus to respect the honor and celebrate the glory of Srivijaya empire.

In addition to the Majapahit nationalists Indonesia Sriwijaya also glorified as a source of pride and proof of past glory Indonesia.Kegemilangan Sriwijaya has been a source of national pride and identity of specific areas for urban dwellers Palembang in South Sumatra province and the entire Malay race. For residents of Sriwijaya Palembang sublime has become the inspiration of art and culture such as traditional songs and dances Gending Sriwijaya. Same thing goes for the people of southern Thailand who recreate dances Sevichai (Sriwijaya) that based on the elegance of art and culture of Sriwijaya.

next table names of the kings of Sriwijaya

Selengkapnya...

Candi Muara Takus

Gambar Candi Muara Takus

Situs yang konon tertua di dunia sisa kejayaan Kerajaan Sriwijaya itu berada di Desa Muara Takus, Kabupaten Kampar, Riau.
Pusat kompleks Candi Budha Muara Takus terletak di Kecamatan XIII Koto Kampar yang jaraknya sekitar 135 kilometer dari Kota Pekanbaru, Riau

Jarak kompleks candi dengan pusat Desa Muara Takus sendiri sekitar 2,5 km, tidak jauh dari pinggir Sungai Kampar Kanan. Dan dari jalan lintas Riau-Sumatra Barat dapat ditempuh dengan jarak sekitar 19 km.

kompleks candi yang pertama kali ditemukan Cornet D Groot pada tahun 1860 ini pun sungguh unik. Berbeda dengan candi di Pulau Jawa seperti Candi Borobudur, Prambanan dan lainnya.

Kompleks candi ini dikelilingi tembok berukuran 74 x 74 meter. Di luar arealnya terdapat pula tembok tanah berukuran 1,5 x 1,5 kilometer yang mengelilingi kompleks ini sampai ke pinggir sungai Kampar Kanan. Di dalam kompleks ini terdapat pula bangunan candi Tua, candi Bungsu dan Mahligai Stupa serta Palangka. Di sini akan kita temukan bangunan candi yang terbuat dari tanah liat dan tanah pasir.

Dalam sejarahnya, Desa Muara Takus sebelum menjadi pusat pengajaran agama Budha, merupakan sebuah daerah yang dulunya sempat disingahi pelaut-pelaut dari Kerajaan Sriwijaya dengan menyusuri Sungai Kampar Kanan.

Menurut para ahli, bahan yang digunakan di candi ini lebih tua metodenya dibandingkan dengan candi yang ada di Jawa yang menggunakan batu dari pegunungan. Jika terus mengikuti sejarah pembuatan candi, diketahui bahan pembuatan candi diambil dan desa Pongkai yang terletak lebih kurang 6 km dari candi. Nama Pongkai berasal dari Cina “Pong” berati lobang dan “Kai” berarti tanah. Maksudnya lubang tanah yang diakibatkan oleh penggalian untuk pembuatan candi Muara Takus tersebut

Selain dari candi Tua, candi Bungsu, Mahligai Stupa dan Palangka, di dalam kompleks juga ditemukan gundukan yang diperkirakan sebagai tempat pembakaran tulang manusia. Di luar kompleks ini terdapat pula bangunan-bangunan bekas yang terbuat dari batu bata, yang belum dapat dipastikan jenis bangunannya.

Candi yang tergolong Budhistis ini merupakan bukti pernahnya agama Budha berkembang di kawasan ini beberapa abad yang silam. Kendati demikian, para pakar purbakala belum dapat menentukan secara pasti kapan candi ini didirikan. Ada pendapat yang mengatakan abad ke-11, ada yang mengatakan abad ke-4, abad ke-7, abad ke-9 dan sebagainya.

Gambar lainnya :










Selengkapnya...

Rabu, 17 Agustus 2011

Situs Peninggalan Kerajaan Sriwijaya

Candi Tinggi



Candi Muara Takus


Candi Gumpung


Stupa Muaro Jambi






Selengkapnya...

Senin, 15 Agustus 2011

History & Mystery


Sketch of the Past Palembang

1. History

Knowledge of the history of Srivijaya in the early newborn of the 20th century AD, when George Coedes write essay titled Le Royaume de Crivijaya in 1918 AD Actually, five years before that, ie in 1913 AD, Kern has published Inscription City Limestone, a relic Srivijaya inscription found on the island of Bangka. However, at that time, Kern still thinks Sriwijaya name listed in the inscription as the name of a king, because Cri usually used as a designation or title of king.

In 1896 AD, translated the works of Japanese scholars Takakusu I-Tsing, Nan-hai-Kuei-chi-nai-ch'uan fa into English under the title A Record of the Budhist Religion as Practised in India and the Malay Archipelago. However, in the book there is no name of Srivijaya, which exist only Shih-li-fo-shih. From the translation of inscription containing the name of Limestone City Srivijaya and the work of I-Tsing containing the name of Shih-li-fo-shih, Coedes later determined that, is the name of a kingdom of Sriwijaya in South Sumatra. Furthermore, Coedes also provides that, where the capital of Sriwijaya was Palembang, relied on the assumption Groeneveldt in his essay, Notes on the Malay Archipelago and Malacca, Compiled from Chinese Source, which states that, San-fo-ts'I is Palembang. Other sources, namely Beal in 1886 expressed the opinion that, Shih-li-fo-shih is a region which lies on the banks of the Musi River, near the city of Palembang. From this opinion, then emerged a tendency among historians to regard as the center of Sriwijaya Palembang.
Other sources that support the existence of Palembang as the center of the kingdom is the Telaga Batu inscription. This inscription is shaped stone slabs near pentagon, topped with seven heads cobra, with a form of a small bowl with spout (small mouth place out water) underneath. According to archaeologists, the inscription was used for the implementation of the ceremonial oath of loyalty and obedience of the official candidates. In the procession, the official who was sworn in drinking water that flowed into the rock and out through the spout. As a means for persumpahan ceremony, the inscriptions were usually placed in the center of the kingdom. Because it was found in the vicinity of Palembang in 1918 AD, it is strongly suspected of Sriwijaya Palembang was the center.
Another clue is that Palembang was the center of the kingdom were also obtained from the findings of ceramics and pottery at the site Gutters Kikim, Cape Rawa, Bukit Siguntang and Kambang Unglen, all in the region of Palembang. Ceramics and pottery are the tools used in everyday life. These findings suggest that, in the past, in Kilkenny there is an ancient settlement. This assumption is strengthened by the results of interpretation of aerial photographs in the area west of Palembang city, which describes the forms of ponds and canals. Ponds and canals that were likely to regularly shaped man-made, not the result of natural processes. From the findings of ceramic and canals, then the archaeologists alleged that Palembang was the center of the powerful kingdom.
As the center of the kingdom, the condition when it is mendesa Palembang (rural), unlike other royal centers are found in mainland Southeast Asia region, such as in Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar. The main ingredient used to make buildings in downtown Sriwijaya wood or bamboo that is easy to get around it. Therefore it is easily damaged materials consumed time, then there is no remaining buildings that can be found again. If anything, the rest of the settlement with the construction of the timber can only be found in swamps or river banks are submerged in water, not in downtown, like on the site Ujung Plancu, Batanghari regency, Jambi. There is a building made of brick or stone, but just building sacred (religious), as found in Palembang, on the site Gedingsuro, Angsoka Temple, and Mount Siguntang, made of brick. Unfortunately, the remaining buildings that are found only the foundation course.
Along with the development, more and more data is found regarding the history of Srivijaya. In addition to the City Kapur inscription, also found inscriptions Coral lust (discovered in 1904 AD), Telaga Batu (found in 1918 AD), Kedukan Hill (found in 1920 AD) Talang Tuo (discovered in 1920 AD) and the New Boom. Among the inscriptions above the inscription Lime City is the oldest, bertarikh 682 AD, tells the story of the sacred journey of Minana Dapunta Hyang by boat, along with two laksa (20,000) troops and 200 crates of supplies, as well as the 1213 soldiers on foot. This trip ends at mukha-p. In these places, then set up Wanua Dapunta Hyang (township) called Srivijaya. In the inscription Talang Tuo who bertarikh 684 AD, is mentioned about the construction of the park by Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa for all beings, named Sriksetra. In the park, there are trees whose fruits can be eaten.
The data is more complete with the presence of Chinese and Arabic news. Chinese sources most often cited are the notes I-Tsing. He was a Buddhist pilgrim from China who has visited Srivijaya several times and had resided for some time. The first visit I-sting was the year 671 AD In his notes stated that, while there were over a thousand Buddhist monks in Sriwijaya. Rules and rituals of the Buddhist monks are the same as the rules and rituals performed by Buddhist monks in India. I-Tsing stayed for 6 months in Sriwijaya to learn Sanskrit, after that, he had just left for Nalanda, India. After long study at Nalanda, I-Tsing back to the Srivijaya in 685 and lived for several years to translate Buddhist texts from Sanskrit into Chinese. Chinese records mention the other envoys visiting Sri Vijayan regularly to China, which last year was 988 AD
In another source, namely the Arab records, called Srivijaya Sribuza. Mas'udi, a historian of classical Arabic written record of Srivijaya in the year 955 AD In that note, depicted is a kingdom of Srivijaya, with a large army. Sriwijaya crops are camphor, aloes wood, clove, sandalwood, nutmeg, cardamom, gambier and some other crops.
Of foreign records, we know that the kingdom of Srivijaya is great in its time, with the region and extensive trade relations to Madagascar. A number of other evidence in the form of statues, stupika, as well as other inscriptions further asserts that, in his time the kingdom of Srivijaya is having good communication with merchants and priests in China, India and Arabia. This just might be done by a great empire, influential, and calculated in the region.
In the 11th century AD, Srivijaya began to decline. In the year 1006 AD, Srivijaya was attacked by Dharmawangsa of East Java. This attack was repelled, even Sriwijaya able to counterattack and succeeded in destroying the kingdom Dharmawangsa. In the year 1025 AD, Srivijaya had attacks that crippled the kingdom Cola, India. However, such attacks have not been able to eliminate Sriwijaya from the earth. Until the beginning of the 13th century AD, Srivijaya was still standing, though the power and influence has been very much reduced.

2. Genealogy

One way to expand the influence of the kingdom is by mating with another kingdom. This is also done by the ruler of Srivijaya. Dapunta Hyang in power since 664 AD, perform marriages with Sobakancana, second daughter of King of Tarumanegara, Linggawarman. This marriage gave birth to a son who became the next king of Srivijaya: Dharma Setu. Dharma Setu later had a daughter named Tara. This daughter then she marry with Samaratungga, kings of Old Mataram Kingdom of the dynasty dynasty. Goddess of marriage with Samaratungga Setu, then born Bala Putra Dewa who became king in Sriwijaya from 833 to 856 AD Here is a list of the genealogy of the kings of Srivijaya:
Dapunta Hyang Sri Yayanaga (Inscription Kedukan Hill 683, Talang Tuo, 684).
1. Cri Indrawarman (Chinese news, the year 724).
2. Rudrawikrama (China news, 728, 742).
3. Vishnu (Ligor inscription, 775).
4. Maharaja (Arab news, the year 851).
5. Balaputradewa (Nalanda inscription, 860).
6. Cri Udayadityawarman (China news, 960).
7. Cri Udayaditya (Chinese news, the year 962).
8. Cri Cudamaniwarmadewa (Chinese news, the year 1003, the inscription of Leiden, 1044).
9. Maraviyayatunggawarman (inscription Leiden, 1044).
10. Cri Sanggaramawijayatunggawarman (Chola inscriptions, 1044).


3. Period

Sriwijaya kingdom ruling from the 7th century until the beginning of the 13th century AD, and reached the golden age in the era of government Balaputra Gods (833-856 AD). The decline of the kingdom is concerned with entry and growth of Islam in Sumatra, and the appearance of strength Singosari and Majapahit in Java.

4. Territory

Area Map Majapahit


Historically, the kingdom of Srivijaya controlled the western part of the archipelago. One of the factors that could cause the Srivijaya controlled the whole western part of the archipelago is the collapse of the kingdom of Fu-nan in Indochina. Previously, Fu-nan is the only one in control in the territorial waters of the Strait of Malacca. Another factor is that Srivijaya naval forces are able to master traffic trade between India and China. With a large fleet strength, Srivijaya and then expand the territory to the island of Java. In another source said that, Srivijaya power to Brunei on the island of Borneo.
From the inscriptions found Lime City JK Van der Meulen on Bangka Island in December 1892 AD, obtained clues about the kingdom of Srivijaya that Java is trying to conquer Earth. Although not explained where the region is the Bhumi Java in the inscription, some archaeologists believe, is that Java is the Kingdom of Bhumi Tarumanegara on the North Coast of West Java. Apart from the contents of the inscriptions, the Srivijaya power also can be known from inscriptions locations spread Sriwjaya these relics. In Lampung found inscriptions Pasemah Palas, in Edinburgh there is the Coral lust, in the Pacific there is the City of lime, in Riau have Barelang. All this suggests that, in these areas once controlled by Srivijaya. Other sources are saying that, Srivijaya power actually reaches the Philippines. It is evident that, Srivijaya had controlled most of the archipelago.

5. Governance Structure

The highest authority in the kingdom of Srivijaya held by the king. To become king, there are three requirements are:
1. Samraj, that is sovereign over his subjects.
2. Indratvam, meaning to rule as god Indra who is always giving prosperity to its people.
3. Ekachattra. Eka means one and chattra means umbrella. This word means capable umbrella (to protect) all of his people.
Equation showing the king with the god Indra the king of the Sriwijaya has a transcendent power.
Not yet known exactly how the structure of government under the king. One aide called the clearly only senapati who served as a warlord.

6. The life of Economic, Social, Cultural

Kepeng Era Sriwijaya


As a huge empire embracing Buddhism, Srivijaya has evolved in a climate that is conducive to developing the Buddhist religion. In traveling I-Tsing notes mentioned that, at that time, there are a thousand priests in Sriwijaya. In his first trip, I-Tsing had resided for six months in Sriwijaya to explore the Sanskrit language. I-Tsing also recommend, if a Chinese pastor wanted to learn to India, you should learn first year or two in the Fo-shih (Palembang), and then studied in India. After coming back from Nalanda, I-Tsing Sriwijaya settled in for seven years (688-695 AD) and produced two major works of the T'ang Ta-yu-ku-fa-kao-seng-chuan and Nan-hai-chi-Kuei -nei-chuan-fa (A Record of the Budhist Religion as Practised in India and the Malay Archipelago), which was completed in the year 692 AD This suggests that, Srivijaya was one of the important Buddhist religious center at the time.
Until the early 11 th century AD, the kingdom of Srivijaya is still a center for the study of Mahayana Buddhism. In relation with India, the kings of Srivijaya build a Buddhist shrine in India. This fact is stated in two inscriptions, the inscriptions of King Dewapaladewa of Nalanda, which is estimated to come from the 9th century AD, and the inscription of King Rajaraja I, which dates to 1044 AD and 1046 AD
The first inscription mentions about King Balaputradewa of Suwarnadwipa (Sriwijaya) who built a monastery, while the second inscription mentions about King Kataha and Srivijaya, Marawijayayottunggawarman who gave gifts to a village dedicated to the Buddha residing in the monastery Cudamaniwarna, Nagipattana, India.
In the field of trade, the kingdom of Srivijaya has a very good trade relations with merchants from China, India, Arabia and Madagascar. It can be ascertained from the findings of China's currency, ranging from the period of the Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD) to Ming Dynasty (14-17 centuries AD). In connection with the commodity being traded, the Arab news from Ibn al-Fakih (902 AD), Abu Zayd (916 M) and Mas'udi (955 AD) mentions some of them, namely clove, nutmeg, cardamom, pepper, areca nut, wood aloes , sandalwood, camphor, ivory, tin, gold, silver, ebony, Sapan wood, spices, and sea turtles. These items were bought by foreign merchants, or bartered with porcelain, cotton and silk fabrics.

Sources:
1. Slamet Muljana, Sriwijaya, Jakarta: LKIS
2. D.G.E. Hall, History of Southeast Asia. New York: National Business.
3. Indonesia National Encyclopedia
4. Tim Riau University, History of Riau, Yogyakarta: Karya Nusa ideology
5. Rakaryan Sukarjaputra, Compass: June 29, 2001
6. Wikipedia

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Kamis, 11 Agustus 2011

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